Once the preserve of antiquarian volumes, London’s “clubland” has been the subject of an increasing number of studies in recent years.

In addition, most London clubs have published an official history. These can be wildly variable in quality and in usefulness to the present-day scholar; but they contain a great deal of unique material that is not otherwise easily found. The below represents (an attempt at) a comprehensive bibliography of books on London clubs.

P = pamphlet

General club histories

  • Anonymous, Your Club (London: Whitbread, 1950).

  • Anonymous [Charles Marsh and Colin Mackenzie], The Clubs of London, 2 vols (London: H. Colburn, 1828).

  • P. Gordon Bamber (ed.), Clubland (London: W. Speaight and Sons, 1910).

  • Barbara Black, A Room of His Own: A Literary-Cultural Study of Victorian Clubland (Athens, Ohio: Ohio University Press, 2012).

  • Peter Clark, British Clubs and Societies, 1580-1800: The Origins of an Associational World (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2000).

  • Bernard Darwin, British Clubs (London: Collins, 1943).

  • David Doughan and Peter Gordon, Women, Clubs and Associations in Britain (London: Routledge, 2006).

  • T. H. S. Escott, Club Makers and Club Members (London: T.F. Unwin, 1914).

  • W. Fraser Rae, ‘Political Clubs and Party Organisation’, Nineteenth Century, 3 (1878), pp. 908-32.

  • Tom Girtin, The Abominable Clubman (London: Hutchinson, 1962). 

  • Charles Graves, Leather Armchairs: The Chivas Regal Book of London Clubs (London: Cassell, 1963).

  • Arthur Griffiths, Clubs and Clubmen (London: Hutchinson, 1907).

  • Joseph Hatton, Club-Land, London and Provincial (London: J. S. Virtue, 1890).

  • Diana Kendall, Members Only: Elite Clubs and the Process of Exclusion (Lanham, Maryland: Rowland & Littlefield, 2008).

  • Anthony Lejeune, The Gentlemen’s Clubs of London (London: Macdonald and Jane’s, 1979).

  • ______________, The Gentlemen’s Clubs of London (London: Stacey International, 2012) [heavily revised and rewritten version of the above].

  • Robin McDouall, Clubland Cooking (London: Phaidon, 1974).

  • Amy Milne-Smith, London Clubland: A Cultural History of Gender and Class in Late Victorian Britain (London: Palgrave Macmillan, 2011).

  • Ralph Nevill, London Clubs (London: Chatto and Windus, 1912).

  • Anita O’Brien and Chris Miles, A Peep into Clubland: Cartoons from Private London Clubs (London: Cartoon Museum, 2009).

  • Erika Diane Rappaport, ‘“Resting Places for Women Wayfairers”: Feminism and the Comforts of the Public Sphere’, in Erika Diane Rappaport, Shopping for Pleasure: Women in the Making of London’s West End (Princeton, New Jersey: Princeton University Press, 2000), pp. 74-107.

  • Anthony Sampson, ‘Clubs’, in Anthony Sampson, The Anatomy of Britain (London: Hodder and Stoughton, 1962), pp. 66-75.

  • Henry C. Shelley, Inns and Taverns of Old London: Setting Forth the Historical and Literary Associations of Those Ancient Hostelries, Together with an Account of the Most Notable Coffee-Houses, Clubs, and Pleasure Gardens of the British Metropolis (Boston: L. C. Page, 1866, 1908 ed.).

  • F. H. W. Sheppard (ed.), Survey of London: Volumes 29 & 30, St. James’s and Westminster, Parts 1 & 2 (London: HMSO, 1960).

  • Antonia Taddei, ‘London Clubs in the Late Nineteenth Century’, University of Oxford Discussion Papers in Economic and Social History, No. 28 (April 1999).

  • Seth Alexander Thévoz, Club Government: How the Early Victorian World was Ruled from London Clubs (London: I. B. Tauris, 2018).

  • John Timbs, Clubs and Club Life in London, with Anecdotes of its Famous Coffee Houses, Hostelries, and Taverns from the Seventeenth Century to the Present Time (London: Chatto and Windus, 1866).

  • Richard Usborne, Clubland Heroes: A Nostalgic Study of Some Recurrent Characters in the Romantic Fiction of Dornford Yates, John Buchan and Sapper (London: Barrie & Jenkins, 1953, rev. 1974).

Also in a category of their own, not as histories in their own right, but as legal textbooks which nonetheless embody a range of case history, are:

  • David Ashton and Paul Reid, Ashton & Reid on Clubs and Associations, 2nd edition (London: LexisNexis, 2011). - A 3rd edition is due out in January 2020.

  • Arthur F. Leach, Club Cases: Being Considerations on the Formation, Management and Dissolution of Clubs, with Especial Reference to the Liabilities and Expulsion of Members (London: Harrison, 1879).

Histories of individual London clubs 

Army & Navy Club (1837- )

  • Anthony Keith Dixon, The Army & Navy Club 1837-2008 (London: Army & Navy Club, 2009).

  • C. W. Firebrace, The Army & Navy Club 1837-1933 (London: John Murray, 1934).

Arts Club (1864- )

  • Bernard Denvir, A Most Agreeable Society: A Hundred and Twenty Five Years of the Arts Club (London: Arts Club/Studio Editions, 1989).

  • G. A. F. Rogers, The Arts Club and its Members (London: Truslove and Hanson, 1920).

 

The Athenaeum (1824- )

  • Frank Richard Cowell, The Athenaeum: Club and Social Life in London 1824-1974 (London: Heinemann, 1975).

  • Felipe Fernández-Armesto, Armchair Athenians: Essays from the Athenaeum (London: Athenaeum, 2001).

  • Hugh Tait and Richard Walker, The Athenaeum Collection (London: Athenaeum, 2000).

  • Humphry Ward, History of the Athenaeum, 1824-1925 (London: Athenaeum, 1926).

  • Francis G. Waugh, The Athenaeum and its Associations, Volume I (London: Athenaeum, 1895).

  • _____________, Members of the Athenaeum Club from its Foundation (London: Athenaeum, 1900).

  • Michael Wheeler, A History of the Athenaeum (forthcoming).

 

Author’s Club (1891- )

  • C. J. Schuler, Writers, Lovers, Soldiers, Spies: A History of the Author’s Club of London, 1891-2016 (London: Author’s Club, 2016).

Beefsteak Club (1876- )

  • John Julius Norwich, Beefsteak Lives, 1876-1997 (London: Beefsteak Club, 2006).

 

Boodle’s (1762- )

  • Marcus Binney and David Mann (eds), Boodle’s: Celebrating 250 Years, 1762-2012 (Marlborough: Libanus Press-Boodle’s, 2012).

  • Roger Fulford, Boodle's, 1762-1962: A Short History (London: Boodle's, 1962).

  • Stephen R. Hill, Boodle’s Apocrypha: A Story of Men and their Club in London (London: Duck Editions, 2009).

 

Brooks’s (1764- )

  • Henry S. Eeles and Earl Spencer, Brooks’s, 1764-1964 (London: Country Life, 1964).

  • J. Mordaunt Crook and Charles Sebag-Montefiore (eds), Brooks’s 1764-2014: The Story of a Whig Club (London: Brooks’s, 2013).

  • Charles Sebag-Montefiore, Charles James Fox – Brooks’s and Whiggery – The Fox Club (London: Brooks’s, 2006). P

  • J. F. Wegg-Prosser (ed.), Memorials of Brooks’s, from the Foundation of the Club, 1764, to the Close of the Nineteenth Century, Compiled from the Records of the Club (London: Ballantyne, 1907).

  • Philip Ziegler and Desmond Seward (eds), Brooks’s: A Social History (London: Constable, 1991).

 

Carlton Club (1832- )

  • Sir Charles Petrie, The Carlton Club (London: Eyre and Spottiswoode, 1955).

  • Sir Charles Petrie and Alistair Cooke [Lord Lexden], The Carlton Club (London: Carlton Club, 2007). [heavily updated version of the above].

  • Barry Phelps, Power and the Party: A History of the Carlton Club, 1832-1982 (London: Macmillan, 1983)

 

Cavalry and Guards Club (1810- )

  • Val Horsler, Cavalry & Guards: A London Home (London: Third Millennium, 2009).

Chelsea Arts Club (1891- )

  • Tom Cross, Artists and Bohemians: 100 Years with the Chelsea Arts Club (London: Quiller, 1991).

  • Don Grant, Private Parts: The Secret History of the Chelsea Arts Club (London: Unicorn, forthcoming, 2020).

 

City of London Club (1832- )

  • J. Owen Unwin, The City of London Club: Centenary Notes on its History and Traditions, 1832-1932 (London: City of London Club, 1932).

 

Civil Service Club (1953- )

  • Norman Seymour, The Story of 13-15 Great Scotland Yard, compiled for the Civil Service Club (London: Civil Service Club, 1992). P

 

Cobden Club (1866-1979)

  • G. H. Jackson, The Cobden Club (London: Cobden-Sanderson, 1938).

 

Colony Room Club (1948-2008)

  • Sophie Parkin, The Colony Room Club: A History of Bohemian Soho (London: Palmtree, 2nd ed. 2008).

Constitutional Club (1883-1979)

  • Philip G. Cambray, Club Days and Ways: The Story of the Constitutional Club, London, 1883-1962 (London: Constitutional Club, 1963).

Crockford’s (1823-1846)

  • A. L. Humphreys, Crockford’s; or, The Goddess of Chance in St. James’s Street, 1828-1844 (London: Hutchinson, 1953).

  • Henry Turner Waddy, The Devonshire Club and “Crockford’s” (London: Eveleigh Nash, 1919).

 

Devonshire Club (1874-1976)

  • Tom Clarke, The Devonshire Club (London: Devonshire Club, 1943).

  • Denys Forrest, Foursome in St. James’s (London: East India Club, 1982).

  • Henry Turner Waddy, The Devonshire Club and “Crockford’s” (London: Eveleigh Nash, 1919).

 

East India Club (1849- )

  • Denys Forrest, Foursome in St. James’s (London: East India Club, 1982).

  • Charlie Jacoby, The East India Club: A History (London: East India Club, 2009).

 

Farmers’ Club (1842- )

  • Kevin Fitzgerald, Ahead of Their Time: A Short History of the Farmers’ Club, 1842-1967 (London: Heinemann, 1968).

Flyfishers’ Club (1884- )

  • Anonymous, The Book of the Flyfishers’ Club, 1884-1934 (Croydon: Croydon Advertiser Printing Works, 1934).

  • Jack Chance and Julian Paget (eds), The Flyfishers’: An Anthology to Mark the Centenary of the Flyfishers’ Club, 1884-1984 (London: Flyfishers’ Club, 1984).

  • Ken Robson (ed.), Flyfishers’ Progress: An Anthology (London: Flyfishers’ Club, 2000).

     

Garrick Club (1831- )

  • C. K. Adams, A Catalogue of Pictures in the Garrick Club (London: Garrick Club, 1936).

  • Geoffrey Ashton, Pictures in the Garrick Club: A Catalogue of the Paintings, Drawings, Watercolours and Sculpture (London: Garrick Club, 1997 [rev. edn. 2002]).

  • R. H. Barham, The Garrick Club: Notes of 135 of its Former Members (London: Garrick Club, 1896).

  • John Baskett, Brief Lives: Biographies of Sitters and Artists in the Garrick Club Collection (London: Unicorn, 2005).

  • Kalman A. Burnim and Andrew Wilton, The Richard Bebb Collection in the Garrick: A Catalogue of Figures, Sculptors and Paintings (London: Unicorn, 2001).

  • Guy Boas, The Garrick Club, 1831-1964 (London: Garrick Club, 1948 [rev. 1964]).

  • Percy Fitzgerald, The Garrick Club (London: Elliot Stock, 1904).

  • Richard Hough, The Ace of Clubs: A History of the Garrick (London: Andre Deutsch, 1986).

  • Desmond Shawe-Taylor, Dramatic Art: Theatrical Paintings from the Garrick Club (London: Dulwich Picture Gallery, 1997).

  • Thomas St. Vincent Wallace-Troubridge, A Guide to the Pictures in the Garrick Club (London: Garrick Club, 1951).

  • Geoffrey Wansell, The Garrick Club: A History (London: Unicorn, 2004).

 

Grillion’s (1812-2013)

  • “P. G. E.”, Annals of Grillion’s Club; from its Origin in 1812, to its Fiftieth Anniversary (London: Chiswick Press, 1880).

 

Groucho Club (1985- )

  • Alice Patten, The Groucho Club – 30th Anniversary (London: Preface Publishing, 2015).

 

Hell-Fire Club (1718-1766)

  • Geoffrey Ashe, The Hell-Fire Clubs: A History of Anti-Morality (London: History Press, 2000 [rev. edn.]).

  • Evelyn Lord, The Hell-Fire Clubs: Sex, Satanism and Secret Societies (New Haven: Yale University Press, 2008).

 

Hurlingham Club (1869- )

  • Taprell Dorling, The Hurlingham Club, 1869-1953 (London: Hurlingham Club, 1953).

 

Junior United Service Club (1827-1967)

  • R. H. Firth, The Junior: A History of the Junior United Service Club, from its formation in 1827, to 1929 (London, Junior United Service Club, 1929).

 

Kit-Cat Club (1700-1817)

  • Ophelia Field, The Kit-Cat Club: Friends Who Imagined a Nation (New York: HarperPress, 2008).

 

Lansdowne Club (1935- )

  • Maria Perry, The House in Berkeley Square: A History of the Lansdowne Club (London: Lansdowne Club, 2003).

 

London Sketch Club (1898- )

  • David Cuppleditch, The London Sketch Club (London: Sutton Publishing, 1994).

 

National Liberal Club (1882- )

  • Anonymous, The National Liberal Club (London: National Liberal Club, 1933). P

  • Coss Bilson (ed.), The National Liberal Club, 1882-1982 (London: National Liberal Club, 1982). P

  • Veronica Herrington, Works of Art, National Liberal Club (London: National Liberal Club, 1997). P

  • Michael Meadowcroft, A Guide to the Works of Art of the National Liberal Club, London (London: National Liberal Club, 2011). P

  • Gerhart Raichle (ed.), National Liberal Club, London – Ausstellung Galerie im Margarethenhof der Friedrich-Naumann-Stiftung Königswinter-Ittenbach, 6. September-28. Oktober 1984 (Königswinter: Friedrich-Naumann-Stiftung, 1984). P

  • Robert Steven, The National Liberal Club: Politics and Persons (London: Robert Houghton, 1925).

 

Naval and Military Club (“In & Out” Club) (1862- )

  • Tim Newark, The In & Out: A History of the Naval and Military Club (London: Osprey Publishing, 2015).

 

New University Club (1864-1938)

  • John Thole, The Oxford and Cambridge Clubs in London (Henley-on-Thames: Alfred Waller-United Oxford and Cambridge University Club, 1992).

Den Norske Klub (1887- )

  • John Birch, Vikings in London: Den Norske Klub – 100 Years (London: Den Norske Klub, 1988).

  • G. Conradi, Den Norske Klub i London, 17 Mai 1887-17 Mai 1937 (London: Den Norske Klub, 1937).

 

Oriental Club (1824- )

  • Alexander F. Baillie, The Oriental Club and Hanover Square (London: Longmans, 1901).

  • Denys Forrest, The Oriental: Life Story of a West End Club (London: B. T. Batsford, 1968 [rev. edn. 1979]).

  • Hugh Riches, History of the Oriental Club (London: Oriental Club, 1998).

  • John Walters, Paintings at the Oriental (London: Oriental Club, 2002).

 

Oxford and Cambridge Club (1830- )

  • John Thole, The Oxford and Cambridge Clubs in London (Henley-on-Thames: Alfred Waller-United Oxford and Cambridge University Club, 1992).

 

Public Schools Club (1909-1915, 1919-1972)

  • Denys Forrest, Foursome in St. James’s (London: East India Club, 1982).

Reform Club (1836- )

  • Russell Burlingham and Roger Billis (eds), Reformed Characters: The Reform Club in History and Literature, an Anthology with Commentary (London: Reform Club, 2005).

  • Louis Fagan, The Reform Club: Its Founders and Architect (London: B. Quaritch, 1887).

  • Craig McDonald Marshall, Alex Fulluck and Amy Crangle, Recipes from the Reform: A Selection of Recipes from the Reform Club, London (London: Reform Club, 2014).

  • J. Mordaunt Crook, The Reform Club (London: Reform Club, 1973). P

  • Jeff Nicholas, Behind the Streets of Adelaide, Volume I: Born of Reform – A Pantheon of Dissent (Adelaide: Torrens Press, 2016).

  • __________, Behind the Streets of Adelaide, Volume II: From Rundle to Morphett (Adelaide: Torrens Press, 2016).

  • __________, Behind the Streets of Adelaide, Volume III: From Wellington to Mann (Adelaide: Torrens Press, 2016).

  • Michael Sharpe, The Political Committee of the Reform Club (London: Reform Club, 1996). P

  • Peter Urbach, The Reform Club: Some Twentieth Century Members – A Photographic Collection (London: Reform Club, 1999). P

  • George Woodbridge, The Reform Club, 1836-1978: A History from the Club’s Records (New York: Clearwater, 1978).

 

Roehampton Club (1901- )

  • Elizabeth Hennessy, A History of the Roehampton Club, 1901 to 2001 (London: Roehampton Club, 2001).

 

Royal Air Force Club (1918- )

  • Henry Probert and Michael Gilbert, ‘128’: The Story of the Royal Air Force Club (London: Royal Air Force Club, 2004).

 

Royal Automobile Club (1897- )

  • Piers Brendon, The Motoring Century: The Story of the Royal Automobile Club (London: Bloomsbury, 1997).

  • Dudley Noble (ed.), The Jubilee Book of the Royal Automobile Club, 1897-1947: The Record of a Historic 50 years, during which the R.A.C. has fostered the Development and Progress of Automobilism in all its many and varied aspects (London: Royal Automobile Club, 1947).

 

Royal Ocean Racing Club (1925- )

  • Ian Dear, The Royal Ocean Club: The First 75 Years (London: Adlard Coles Nautical, 2000).

 

Royal Overseas League (1910- )

  • Adele Smith, The Royal Overseas League: From Empire to Commonwealth, a History of the First 100 Years (London: I. B. Tauris, 2009).

 

Royal Thames Yacht Club (1775- )

  • A. R. Ward, The Chronicles of the Royal Yacht Club (Oxford: John Wiley, 1999).

 

Savage Club (1857- )

  • Percy V. Bradshaw, ‘Brother Savages and Guests’: A History of the Savage Club, 1857- 1957 (London: W. H. Allen, 1958).

  • Thomas Catling and Walter Jerrold, A Savage Club Souvenir (London: Savage Club, 1916).

  • Andrew Halliday (ed.), The Savage Club Papers, First Series (London: Tinsley Brothers, 1867).

  • __________________, The Savage Club Papers for 1868 (London: Tinsley Brothers, 1868).

  • Mark Hambourg, The Eighth Octave: Tones and Semi-Tones Concerning Piano-Playing, the Savage Club and Myself (London: Williams & Norgate, 1951).

  • J. E. Muddock (ed.), The Savage Club Papers (London: Hutchinson, 1897).

  • Matthew Norgate and Alan Wykes, Not So Savage (London: Jupiter Books, 1976).

  • William Bernard Tegetmeier, Reminiscences of the Savage Club (London: XXX, 1900).

  • Edwin A. Ward, Recollections of a Savage, i.e. a Member of the Savage Club (London: Frederick A. Stokes, 1923).

  • John Wade, Dining with Savages: A New Savage Miscellany (Northam: Roundhouse, 2000).

  • Aaron Watson and Mark Twain, The Savage Club: A Medley of History, Anecdote and Reminiscence (London: T. Fisher Unwin, 1907).

  • James Wilson, Noble Savages: The Savage Club and the Great War, 1914-1918 (London: J. H. Productions, 2018).

 

Savile Club (1868- )

  • Anonymous, The Savile Club, 1868 to 1923 (London: Savile Club, 1923).

  • Anonymous, The Savile Club, 1868-1958 (London: Savile Club, 1957). P

  • Monja Danischewsky, The Savile Club, 1868-1968 (London: Savile Club, 1968). P

  • Garrett Anderson, Hang Your Halo in the Hall: A History of the Savile Club (London: Savile Club, 1993).

 

Smithfield Club (1798- )

  • Sir B. T. Brandreth Gibbs, The Smithfield Club: A Condensed History of its Origin and Progress, from its Formation in 1798, up to the year 1880 (London: Smithfield Club, 1881).

  • E. J. Powell, History of the Smithfield Club: from 1798 to 1900 (London: Smithfield Club, 1902).

 

Soho House (1995- )

  • Anonymous, Eat, Drink, Nap: Bringing the House Home (London: Preface Publishing, 2014).

  • Anonymous, Morning, Noon, Night: A Way of Living (London: Preface Publishing, 2016).

 

Sports Club (1893-1938)

  • Denys Forrest, Foursome in St. James’s (London: East India Club, 1982).

  • W. W. Marsh, The Sports Club, 1893-1938 (London: Sports Club, 1938).

Special Forces Club (1946- )

  • Sean Rayment, Tales from the Special Forces Club (London: Collins, 2013).

 

Travellers Club (1819- )

  • Graham Binns, Hugh Massingberd and Sheila Markham, A House of the First Class: The Travellers Club and its Members (London: Travellers Club, 2003). P

  • Almeric Fitzroy, History of the Travellers Club (London: George Allen & Unwin, 1927).

  • Frank Herrmann and M. Allen (eds), Travellers’ Tales: By Members of the Travellers’ Club (London: Castlereagh, 1999).

  • Patrick Leigh Fermor et al, More Tales from the Travellers: A Further Collection of Tales by Members of the Travellers Club, London (London: M. Tomkinson, 2005.)

  • John Martin Robinson, The Travellers Club: A Bicentennial History, 1819-2019 (Marlborough: Libanus Press-Travellers Club, 2018).

 

Turf Club (1861- )

  • Fergus D’Arcy, Horses, Lords and Racing Men: Turf Club, 1790-1990 (London: Turf Club, 1991).

 

Union Club (1799-1949)

  • R. C. Rome, Union Club: An Illustrated Descriptive Record of the Oldest Members’ Club in London, founded circa 1799 (London: B. T. Batsford- Union Club, 1948).

 

United Service Club (1815-1977)

  • Louis C. Jackson, The United Service Club and its Founder (London: Sanders Phillips, 1931).

  • _____________, History of the United Service Club (London: United Service Club, 1937).

United University Club (1821-1971)

  • John Thole, The Oxford and Cambridge Clubs in London (Henley-on-Thames: Alfred Waller-United Oxford and Cambridge University Club, 1992).

University Women’s Club (1886- )

  • A. G. E. Carthew (ed.), The University Women's Club: Extracts from Fifty Years of Minute Books, 1886-1936 (Eastbourne: Sumfield and Day, 1936, repr. 1985).

White’s

  • Anonymous, The History of White’s, with the Betting Book from 1743 to 1878 and a List of Members from 1736 to 1892, 2 vols (London: Algernon Bourke, 1892).

  • Percy Colson, White’s: 1693-1950 (London: Heinemann, 1951).

  • Anthony Lejeune, White’s: The First Three Hundred Years (London: A&C Black, 1993).

Working men’s clubs

  • T. G. Ashplant, ‘London Working Men’s Clubs, 1875-1914’, in Eileen Yeo and Stephen Yeo (eds), Popular Culture and Class Conflict, 1590-1914: Explorations in the History of Labour and Leisure (Sussex: Harvester Press, 1981).

  • Ruth Cherrington, Not Just Beer and Bingo! A Social History of Working Men’s Clubs (London: AuthorHouse, 2012).

  • Henry Clarke, Working Men’s Clubs: Hints for their Formation, with Rules, etc. (London: Working Men’s Club and Institute Union, 1865).

  • John Davis, ‘Radical Clubs and London Politics, 1870-1900‘, in David Feldman and Gareth Stedman-Jones (eds), Metropolis London: Histories and Representations since 1800 (London: Routledge, 1989).

  • B. T. Hall, Working Men’s Clubs: Why and How to Establish and Manage Them (London: Working Men’s Club and Institute Union, 1920).

  • Richard Price, ‘The Working Men’s Club Movement, and Victorian Social Reform Ideology‘, Victorian Studies, 15 (1971), pp. 117-47.

  • Stan Shipley, Club Life and Socialism in Mid-Victorian London – History Workshop Pamphlets Number Five (London: History Workshop Journal, 1971). P

  • Henry Solly, Working Men’s Social Clubs and Educational Institutes (London: Working Men’s Club and Institute Union, 1858).

  • John Taylor, From Self-Help to Glamour: The Working Man’s 1860-1972 – History Workshop Pamphlets Number Seven (London: History Workshop Journal, 1972). P

  • George Tremlett, Clubmen: The History of the Working Men’s Club and Institute Union (London: Secker & Warburg, 1987).